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Electrodes for enzyme immobilization

Nanostructured Transparent Conductive Electrodes – Advanced Material Design For Controlled Enzyme Immobilization

Nanostructured transparent conductive thin film electrodes are promising platforms for the further development of enzymatic bio-electronic hybrid devices, such as enzymatic fuel cells or biosensors.
High surface area materials by design, mesoporous transparent conductive thin film electrodes allow the quantitative immobilization of high amounts of enzyme / proteins only if the pore structure (in terms of pore size and pore connectivity) is designed in agreement with the enzyme / protein size.

As such the aim of our project is to developp high-surface area transparent conductive oxide thin film electrodes with tailored porosity for the quantitative immobilization of redox active enzymes as high performance electrocatalysts.

Moreover by taking advantage of the transparency of these electrodes fundamental insights into relevant surface immobilization processes involving the material-enzyme interface can be gained by spectroscopic techniques.

As such combined electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation of selected enzymes on model as well as high-surface area transparent conductive electrodes allow to unravel material parameters controlling enzyme binding as well as orientation for direct electrochemistry.



This project is funded by the DFG (Cluster of Excellence "Unifying Concepts in Catalysis" UniCat EXC 314-2)



1) Enzymes on ATO (antimony doped tin oxide) electrodes:

S. Frasca, A. Molero Milan, A. Guiet, C. Goebel, F. Pérez-Caballero, K. Stiba, S. Leimkühler, A. Fischer, and U.Wollenberger, “Bioelectrocatalysis at mesoporous antimony doped tin oxide electrodes—Electrochemical characterization and direct enzyme communication,” Electrochim. Acta, vol. 110, pp. 172–180, Nov. 2013.


Full-size image (102 K)


Mesostructure and crystallinity of the pl-ATO (a, c) and ATO-F127 films (b, d): SEM images (cross section and top view) of the planar ATO (a) and the ATO-F127 (b) thin films; HRTEM image with the corresponding SAED patterns inset for pl-ATO (c) and ATO-F127 (d); (e) wide-angle XRD of the as-synthesized ATO NPs (A) and of the ATO NPs calcined at 450 °C (B). (doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2013.03.144)


2) Hydrogenases on nanostructured gold electrodes - Immobilization Study by SEIRA spectroelectrochemistry

Heidary, N., Utesch, T., Zerball, M., Horch, M., Millo, D., Fritsch, J., Zebger, I. Orientation-controlled electrocatalytic efficiency of an adsorbed oxygen-tolerant hydrogenase. PLoS ONE, 10(11), 1–9, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143101



Fig 1. Top: SEIRA spectra of the Strep-tagged Re MBH, immobilized on a nanostructured Au surface coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 6-amino-1-hexanethiol. Spectra are shown for (A), the amide mode region and, (B), the CO and CN stretching region of the active site. A structural depiction of the active site in the oxidized Nir-B state is shown in the inset. Bottom: (C) Non-contact-mode AFM topographic mapping of the SAM-modified Au surface after completed MBH immobilization. The dashed vertical line indicates the course of the height profiles shown in (D) for immobilized Re MBH (orange line) and prior to immobilization (black line; see Fig B in S1 Appendix). The grey double-headed arrow indicates the space of a single MBH molecule.

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